Overview of Administrative Copyright Enforcement in China

Overview of Administrative Copyright Enforcement in China

With the brand new PRC Copyright Regulation coming – we have a look at how methods to make the most of administrative cures for copyright enforcement.

The brand new PRC Copyright Regulation will come into impact on June 2021.

China has a three-track enforcement system for copyrights – legal, civil and administrative. This provides choices to IP house owners. As a result of there are such a lot of copyrights overlaying books, music, movie, digital content material, utilized artwork and different types of work, copyright circumstances often outnumber these of trademark, unfair competitors and patent infringement. Due to this fact, China’s copyright administrative enforcement authority performs a vital position in cracking down on copyright infringers as the executive route is cheaper and quicker to take. This enables many circumstances to be resolved with out having to be dropped at the IP courts, that are already burdened with a heavy caseload.

On this article, we are going to have a look at current developments in China’s copyright administrative enforcement system to point out the big selection of choices accessible for IP house owners. 

The copyright administrative enforcement authority

Copyright enforcement is led by the Nationwide Copyright Administration of China (NCAC) and its varied ranges of copyright administrative authorities (CAA). Its position is to guard the unique rights of copyright holders in addition to the general public curiosity. The one exception to this enforcement system is that the Shenzhen Administration for Market Regulation (AMR) is in control of administrative copyright enforcement in Shenzhen, as it’s a particular financial zone.

CAAs are empowered to conduct on-site inspections of premises the place unlawful acts by an infringer happen, interrogate related and accountable individuals, seize alleged infringing reproductions, tools for putting in/storing infringing reproductions, supplies, instruments and tools used for the aim of committing unlawful acts, and to examine, seal-up and make copies of recordsdata, accounts and different associated written supplies. These are very intensive powers far past what will be achieved in a civil case.


In March 2019, the Nanjing Metropolis CAA raided Nanjing LeKu Web Expertise Co.Ltd for making unlawful revenue by means of its app “Korea Opera TV” which supplied 88 on-line unauthorized movies and different audio-visual works and ads.  The CAA issued a call to confiscate the unlawful revenue of RMB 20,000 (USD3,076) and imposed a wonderful of RMB 839,000 (USD129,076)

In comparison with civil litigation which often takes 6 to 18 months for first occasion judgements, an administrative punishment determination is often issued inside 3 months. Relying on the severity of the copyright infringement, the authority can situation a call to confiscate seized objects and unlawful income, destroy infringing reproductions, instruments and tools with out compensation and impose a wonderful of as much as 5 instances the unlawful turnover. The punitive determination is printed on the CAA’s official web site.


The Shenzhen AMR issued a call on 4 November 2020 (inside a month after submitting the case) with a wonderful of RMB 10,000 (USD1,538). It was imposed primarily based primarily on notarized purchases from Hong Kong towards a manufacturing facility for illegally putting in TV packing containers and disseminating US copyrighted movies and promoting them to abroad consumers. The punishment was printed on the Shenzhen AMR’s official web site[1]

Copyright infringement is turning into extra technical, akin to circumstances of utilized artworks, anti-circumvention and rights administration data circumstances, communication to the general public digital infringement. So CAAs, particularly in tier one cities like Shenzhen, Guangzhou, Shanghai and Beijing, having to determine an increasing number of advanced copyright infringement case on the administrative stage.


A 2020 case for a Japanese copyright holder concerned know-how circumvention instruments associated to a pc sport console. The Guangzhou and Shenzhen CAA needed to determine on Article (6) of Article 48 of the Copyright Regulation concerning intentional avoidance or destruction of technical measures with out the consent of the copyright holder. After cautious consideration and know-how verification, each authorities issued punishment selections imposing penalties on distributors/service suppliers of the sport console. 

The pre-requisite of public curiosity for copyright administrative enforcement

Along with the Copyright Regulation, China has additionally promulgated different guidelines to guard copyright. These embrace the Implementation Rules for the PRC Copyright Regulation, Rules on Safety of data Community Transmission Proper, Rules on the Safety of Laptop Software program, Measures for the Implementation of Copyright Administrative Punishments, and the Measures for the Administrative Safety of Web Copyright.

To ensure that the CAA to implement the aforementioned legal guidelines and legislations in copyright infringement circumstances, it’s a pre-requisite that public curiosity can also be harmed by the infringing act, in accordance with Article 48 of the Copyright Regulation. There isn’t any clear definition as to what constitutes as “an infringement act that additionally harms public curiosity”. In follow, CAAs at completely different ranges have completely different approaches to making use of this Article. Some circumstances are rejected by the CAA over doubts concerning the “public hurt”, of which the IP house owners concerned are suggested to go to courtroom.

Some years in the past, the NCAC supplied steerage concerning methods to apply Article 48 regarding the public curiosity to the Zhejiang Provincial Copyright Administration. The NCAC units out the precept that if an act not solely infringes one other’s copyright but additionally harms honest competitors out there, the act ought to be deemed as additionally harming public curiosity. This has given some steerage for legislation enforcement and it isn’t too troublesome for copyright holders to show this. In our expertise, copyright holders ought to present preliminary proof of the infringing act with a objective to make unlawful revenue, the infringement scale, some examples of unfair competitors, in addition to hurt to shoppers’ curiosity, and causes it will trigger dysfunction to the market. Then the CAA will settle for a case.

An ornamental textiles copyright infringement case dealt with by the Guangdong Provincial Copyright Administration (GDPCA) can also be frequently referred to by CAAs, significantly in Guangdong Province, as steerage for officers to contemplate whether or not public curiosity has been harmed. They have a look at a number of elements together with:

1. Hurt to the IP holder, which additionally consists of hurt to honest competitors out there and causes a threat to different opponents.

2. The distinction in high quality of copyright infringements doubtlessly suffered by shoppers.

3. Pirated merchandise, which result in tax evasion and harming the state.

Proving copyright infringement and utilizing the copyright recordal system

Copyright routinely arises in a accomplished work embodied in a tangible medium of expression. In follow, the copyright enforcement authority requests a copyright holder to offer a copyright recordal certificates to initially show copyright possession earlier than they are going to evaluation its deserves and file a copyright infringement case. A copyright recordal certificates is issued by the NCAC (with out substantial evaluation of an utility) upon voluntary utility by the copyright holder. This serves as prima facie proof of copyright subsistence and possession. Except the infringer can present proof in any other case (which requires the submission of proof akin to unique manuscripts and drafts, contracts, and so on.), the copyright recordal is accepted by the enforcement authority as proof of copyright possession.  

Together with overlaying technical copyright points, a copyright recordal certificates additionally covers effectivity points. It’s because it’s in Chinese language and it has an official standing. Not solely is it a time saver for the CAAs, however it may be relied on when imposing copyright by means of cease-and-desist letters or complaints to third-party e-commerce or social media platforms.

Copyright recordal is a speedy course of – a recordal takes solely three to 4 months and since no examination is required, additionally it is cheap. A quick-track course of various from 1 working day to 35 working days will be requested to expedite the progress by paying further charges. IP house owners fear that such recordals are a barrier to enforcement, however proving subsistence and possession within the Chinese language language is usually a extra time-consuming course of.

In keeping with the 2019 white paper Mental Property Safety Standing issued by the China Nationwide Mental Property Administration (CNIPA), there have been over 4 million functions for copyright recordals in 2019, overlaying 2.7 million works and 1.5 million pc software program packages.

Administrative circumstances utilized in civil litigation

 One necessary use of administrative circumstances is to safe proof for civil litigation. In some circumstances, the cessation of infringement can be enough. In others, nonetheless, IP house owners might want to search damages. In such circumstances it’s usually helpful to file an administrative motion first so that every one the proof will be obtained. In our expertise, it’s far simpler to acquire proof by means of this technique than by means of non-public investigations. The objective of the copyright holder then can be to safe an award of damages.


In December 2020, Rouse filed a criticism towards a jewellery wholesaler within the Shuibei space (well-known for jewellery wholesales) within the Luohu District AMR of Shenzhen. The AMR raided the shop and seized over 20 luxurious rings, bracelets and necklaces made from gold and platinum that have been replicas of copyrighted luxurious jewelries with out the manufacturers. The unlawful worth of the seized items reached the legal threshold and the AMR transferred the case to the native police for legal investigation in February 2021. The copyright holder has begun settlement negotiations looking for damages of RMB 1 million (USD153,846). The prospects of profitable a civil litigation case primarily based on proof from the raid is excessive if a settlement just isn’t reached.

Jianwang Marketing campaign ( or “ SwordNet Marketing campaign”)

China conducts campaigns to implement IP safety. Since 2005, the NCAC, along with the Ministry of Trade and Data Expertise (MIIT), the Ministry of Public Safety (MPS) and the Our on-line world Administration of China (CAC) have run an annual “Jianwang Marketing campaign” aiming to deal with on-line copyright infringement in music, films, literature, video games, e-commerce, software program and functions – all sorts of on-line copyright infringement.

In keeping with authorities statistics, the NCAC, MITT and MPS has handled 5578 circumstances associated to Web infringement and piracy, together with the authorized shutdown of 3079 pirate websites and confiscating 2230 servers and associated gadgets and imposing fines of as much as RMB20.52 million. In keeping with the China Mental Property Safety Standing, the Jianwang Marketing campaign has led to 1.1 million piracy hyperlinks eliminated, 10.75 million piracy replications have been confiscated, 1,405 piracy web sites have been shut down, 450 web copyright infringement and piracy circumstances have been dealt with, 160 copyright infringement circumstances value of RMB524 million have been (US$80.6 million) transferred to the legal authorities or investigated.

Such campaigns have missed outcomes. Some accuse the federal government of publishing nice statistics solely since copyright infringement downside stays widespread. Nonetheless this misses 2 necessary factors. First copyright is broadly understood to be a problem of public good too. Creativity is protected solely the place the federal government steps in and takes motion. In a rustic like China the place infringement just isn’t unusual, authorities campaigns present answer. The second level is that this; these campaigns are a bedrock on which the CAAs develop intensive expertise, which IP house owners can depend on to safe nice case outcomes for themselves.


In January 2019, Shanxi Provincial and Changzhi Municipal police and the CAA shaped a particular staff to research into the web site of Shengcheng Jiayuan (圣城家园网) for the unauthorized on-line dissemination of movies, music, video games and software program. In the course of the joint enforcement, it was discovered that the operator Mr Zhu and different infringers had made income from illegally offering its members (greater than 2 million registered members) 16,700 movies, 16,300 music works,4,700 video games, and 9,900 software program, involving a complete of over 1.3 billion clicks. In December 2019, Huguan County Folks’s Courtroom in Changzhi Metropolis issued a legal judgement towards Mr. Zhu and the opposite infringers for copyright infringement, imposing a sentence of as much as 3 years and 6 months and fines of as much as RMB 810,000 (USD124,615) for every particular person. It solely took the authorities 15 days to make the choice, from submitting the case to arresting the primary suspect, and fewer than a yr to the trial.

Customs Copyright Safety

One other administrative authority that may deal with copyright infringement and piracy circumstances is the China customs. Copyright holders can file functions for copyright recordals within the nationwide customs database and supply coaching in numerous ports to get on-site inspecting officers conversant in  copyrighted works to reinforce the prospect of intercepting reproduced or pirated items. In keeping with China Mental Property Safety Standing, the China Customs seized 303 shipments of 83,700 copyright infringing merchandise in 2019.


In April 2020, Foshan customs (underneath Guangzhou Customs) intercepted 1825 backpacks with SWISSGEAR labels infringing Swiss Wenger’s copyright. It’s the greatest seizure of copyright infringement prior to now 3 years for Guangzhou customs[2].

 In Feburary 2020, Xiamen customs seized 24,000 gentle sticks infringing the copyright of Xiamen Changhui Enterprise Ltd (厦门长辉实业有限公司). The copyright holder didn’t report its copyrights beforehand with customs, however the copyright holder reported the goal cargo to Xiamen customs, submitted its copyright certificates and paid the bond. Xiamen customs reviewed the copyright and made comparability with the goal gentle sticks and accepted the case.[3]

Shenzhen as essentially the most superior CAA

With its distinctive check and pilot methods for IP enforcement, Shenzhen is a frequent path blazer in IP circumstances. A key concern in China is deterrents. Administrative enforcement suffers from the accusation that fines are too low, only a value of doing enterprise for IP infringers. A key fear for IP house owners utilizing administrative cures as a substitute of civil ones is whether or not the penalty can be increased than the positive factors from IP violations.


In March 2014, Tencent, which was the unique licensee of 13 copyrighted audio-visual works, made a criticism to Shenzhen AMR towards Qvod (a developer and supplier of software program for broadcasting audio-visual works) for disseminating the 13 works on the web with out authorization. Earlier than Tencent filed the criticism, it had despatched 3 cease-and-desist letters to request Qvod cease the infringement. Tencent additionally supplied a civil judgment from the Shenzhen Nanshan District Courtroom to show that comparable infringing habits made by Qvod was confirmed by the courtroom to be copyright infringement and ordered to cease the infringing exercise and to pay damages.  

Based mostly on proof towards Qvod on repeated copyright infringement and public hurt, the AMR issued a wonderful of RMB 260 million (US$ 40 million), which was thrice of Qvod’s unlawful enterprise turnover of RMB 86.71 million. Qvoq appealed to the Guangdong provincial Copyright Bureau by submitting for first occasion administrative litigation on the Shenzhen Futian District Folks’s Courtroom, for second occasion administrative litigation on the Shenzhen Metropolis Intermediate Folks’s courtroom, and for remaining administrative litigation to the Guangdong Provincial Larger Courtroom. In 2019, the Larger Courtroom made a remaining binding judgement rejecting all of Qvod’s claims and upheld the choice. Because of the choice, Qvod went out of business.


China handles an unlimited variety of copyright administrative circumstances. They’re cheap, speedy and are efficient for many conditions. Many circumstances are immediately initiated by the authorities underneath authorities campaigns, and the CAAs have gotten extra skilled in tackling new topic issues.  Administrative cures are an excellent first step for copyright holders looking for legal and civil penalties in circumstances of copyright infringement.

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